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摇臂钻床的电气控制PLC改造,摇臂钻床PLC控制原理

2020-07-27 15:23来源:未知浏览:

 

摇臂电路设计和摇臂钻床说明

依据继电控制原理,摇臂钻床由多电机拖动。主轴电动机M1,摇臂升降电动机M2,液压泵电动机M3和冷却泵电动机M4,分析它的电气控制原理,摇臂钻床输入元件有11个,按钮6个,哏位开关有5个;输出元件有9个,接触器线圏5个,电磁阀1个,信号灯3个。继电器控制电路的热继电器,不用作为输入的元件,将触点串接到接触器线圈回路中很方便,能够节省输出点。

摇臂钻床PLC端口分配表

 

PLC端口分配表

依据I/O分配,制作I/O端的子接线图3子接线图的输入侧用直流24V,输出侧用交流220V,这样直接驱动交流接触器、电磁阀会更加方便。但是主令电器常闭触头都是用常开触点为输入,令编程简单,热继电器常闭触点串联在接触器线圈回路用作过载保护,把接触器常闭触点串接进线圈回路,进行互锁保护可以增加系统可靠性,PLC输入输出都采用光电隔离,增强了抗干扰能力。

摇臂钻床PLC I/O端子接线图

摇臂钻床程序设计与说明

依据摇臂钻床控制要求以及继电器-接触器控制逻辑,结合PLC端口分配,改造PLC控制程序。

摇臂钻床PLC梯形图

 

摇臂钻床PLC梯形图指令表
1 LD X2 20 ANI X5 41 ANI Y2
2 OR Y1 21 ANI X6 42 OUT Y3
3 ANI XI 22 OUT Y6 43 LD T1
4 OUT YI 23 LD R1 44 OR Y5
5 LD X3 24 OR R2 45 ANI R1
6 ANI X21 25 MPS   46 LD X6
7 LD X4 26 ANI Y5 47 ANI R1
8 ANI A25 27 OUT R2 48 ORB  
9 ORB   28 MPP   49 ANI Y4
10 OUT R1 29 ANI R1 50 OUT Y5
11 LD R1 30 OUT T.MX1K30 51 LD X24
12 ANI X22 33 LD R1 52 OUT Y21
13 OR X5 34 AND X22 53 INV  
14 ANI Y5 35 MPS   54 OUT Y22
15 OUT Y4 36 ANI X4 55 LD Yl
16 LD R1 37 ANI Y3 56 OUT Y23
17 LD Y6 38 OUT Y2 57 END  
18 ANI X23 39 MPP        
19 ORB   40 ANI X3      

 

摇臂钻床PLC控制原理

(1)主轴电机起停

按下启动按钮SB2(非自锁),输入点X2合上,输出点Y1得电后自锁,接触器KM1线圏得电,HL3指示灯亮,主轴电动机Ml得电工作。按下停止按钮SB1(非自锁),输入点XI合上,输出点Y1断电,对应的接触器KM1失电,线圈松开,主轴电动机Ml停止运转,指示灯HL3灭。

(2)摇臂升降控制

松开摇臂运动过程:按下上升按钮SB3(非自锁),输入点X3合上(或按下下降按钮SB4(非自锁),输入点X4合上),辅助继电器R1通电,其辅助常开触点接通,输出点Y4和输出点Y6接通,辅助继电器R2接通,接触器KM4通电,线圈合上,液压泵电动机M3正向运行,发出正向压力油,随后电磁阀YV通电,线圈合上,摇臂松开。

摇臂上升(下降)运动过程:摇臂上升(或下降)松开动作完成后碰压行程开关SQ2,其对应输入常闭触点X22断开,输出点Y4断开,接触器KM4通电,线圈合上,液压泵电动机M3断电停止工作,摇臂始终保持着松开的状态;同时常开触点对应的输入点X22闭合,输出点Y2(或Y3)接通,接触器KM2(或KM3)通电,线圈合上,摇臂升降电动机M2正方向运行(下降为反反向运行),直接拖动摇臂上升(或下降)。

夹紧摇臂的运动过程:摇臂上升(或下降)到所要到达位置时,放开按钮SB3(或SB4),相应输入点断开,辅助继电器R1不得电,输出点Y2(或Y3)失电,接触器KM2(或KM3)通电,线圈合上,摇臂升降电动机M2失电工作停止,相应的摇臂升降不再动作;同时接通定时器T1,定时器在通电3秒的延时后动作,定时器常开触点闭合,输入点Y5合上,接触器KM5通电,线圈合上。液压泵电动机M3反方向运行,发出反方向压力油,使摇臂夹紧。夹紧动作完成后压下行程开关SQ3,行程开关对应的输入点X23松开,输入点Y5、Y6失电,接触器KM5和电磁阀YV因线圈释放而使M3停转。

(3)松开与夹紧主轴箱和立柱的控制

合上主轴箱松开按钮SB5,输入点X5接通,输出点Y4合上,接触器KM4得电,线圈吸合,液压泵电动机M3正向运行,电磁阀YV没有工作,松开主轴箱和立柱。没有压到行程开关SQ4,常闭触点合上,指示灯HL1得电发亮,完成了整个主轴箱和立柱的松开。

合上主轴箱夹紧按钮SB6,输入点X6合上,输出点Y5接通,相应的接触器KM5得电,线圈吸合,液压泵电动机M3反向运行,电磁阀YV仍不通电,主轴箱和立柱夹紧=同时行程开关SQ4受压,相应的常闭点断开,指示灯HL1失电,常开触点对应的输出点合上,指示灯HL2亮,完成了整个主轴箱和立柱的夹紧。

 

 

 

Rocker circuit design and radial drilling machine description

According to the relay control principle, the radial drilling machine is driven by multiple motors. The main shaft motor M1, rocker arm lifting motor m2, hydraulic pump motor m3 and cooling pump motor M4 are analyzed. According to the electrical control principle, there are 11 input elements, 6 buttons and 5 switch switches; 9 output components, 5 contactor coils, 1 solenoid valve and 3 signal lights. The thermal relay of the relay control circuit is not used as an input element. It is convenient to connect the contact points in series with the contactor coil circuit, which can save the output points.

According to the I / O distribution, the I / O terminal sub wiring diagram is made. The input side of the 3 sub wiring diagram uses DC 24 V, and the output side uses AC 220 V, so it is more convenient to directly drive AC contactor and solenoid valve. However, the normally closed contacts of main electrical appliances are all input with normally open contacts, which makes programming simple. The normally closed contacts of thermal relays are connected in series in the coil circuit of contactors for overload protection. The normally closed contacts of contactors are connected in series into the coil circuit for interlocking protection, which can increase the system reliability. The input and output of PLC adopt photoelectric isolation, which enhances the anti-interference ability.

Program design and description of radial drilling machine

According to the control requirements of radial drilling machine and the control logic of relay contactor, combined with the port distribution of PLC, the PLC control program is reformed.

PLC control principle of radial drilling machine

(1) Starting and stopping of spindle motor

Press start button SB2 (non self-locking), input point X2 is closed, output point Y1 is powered on, coil of contactor KM1 is powered on, Hl3 indicator light is on, and spindle motor ml is powered on. Press stop button SB1 (non self-locking), input point Xi is closed, output point Y1 is powered off, corresponding contactor KM1 loses power, coil is released, spindle motor ml stops running, and indicator light Hl3 is off.

(2) Rocker arm lifting control

Release rocker arm movement process: press up button Sb3 (non self-locking), input point X3 is closed (or press down button Sb4 (non self-locking), input point X4 is closed), auxiliary relay R1 is energized, its auxiliary normally open contact is connected, output point Y4 and output point y6 are connected, auxiliary relay R2 is connected, contactor km4 is powered on, and coil is closed, The hydraulic pump motor m3 runs forward and sends out positive pressure oil. Then the solenoid valve YV is energized, the coil is closed, and the rocker arm is released.

Rocker arm up (down) movement process: after the rocker arm up (or down) release action is completed, press travel switch SQ2, its corresponding input normally closed contact X22 is disconnected, output point Y4 is disconnected, contactor km4 is powered on, coil is closed, hydraulic pump motor m3 is cut off and rocker arm is always in loose state; at the same time, input point X22 corresponding to normally open contact is closed, and output point Y2 (or Y3) is connected, When the contactor km2 (or KM3) is electrified, the coil is closed, and the rocker arm lifting motor M2 runs in the positive direction (descending is reverse operation), and the rocker arm is directly dragged up (or down).

The movement process of clamping rocker arm: when the rocker arm rises (or descends) to the desired position, release the button Sb3 (or Sb4), the corresponding input point is disconnected, the auxiliary relay R1 is not electrified, the output point Y2 (or Y3) is de energized, the contactor km2 (or KM3) is powered on, the coil is closed, the rocker arm lifting motor M2 is powered off, and the corresponding rocker arm lifting is no longer operating; At the same time, turn on the timer T1, and the timer will act after 3 seconds of power on. The normally open contact of the timer will be closed, the input point Y5 will be closed, the contactor km5 will be powered on and the coil will be closed. Hydraulic pump motor m3 runs in the opposite direction and sends out pressure oil in the opposite direction to clamp the rocker arm. After the clamping action is completed, press down the travel switch SQ3, the corresponding input point x23 of the travel switch is released, the input points Y5 and y6 lose power, and the contactor km5 and solenoid valve YV stop m3 due to the coil release.

(3) Control of loosening and clamping headstock and column

Close the spindle box release button sb5, input point X5 is connected, output point Y4 is closed, contactor km4 is powered on, coil is closed, hydraulic pump motor m3 is running forward, and solenoid valve YV is not working. Loosen headstock and column. When the travel switch sq4 is not pressed, the normally closed contact is closed, the indicator light HL1 is powered on and the whole headstock and column are released.

Close the spindle box clamping button sb6, the input point X6 is closed, the output point Y5 is connected, the corresponding contactor km5 is powered on, the coil is closed, the hydraulic pump motor m3 is in reverse operation, the solenoid valve YV is still not powered, the headstock and column clamping = at the same time, the travel switch sq4 is pressed, and the corresponding normally closed point is disconnected, When the indicator light HL1 loses power, the output point corresponding to the normally open contact is closed, and the indicator light HL2 is on, which completes the clamping of the whole headstock and the column.

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